Chronological Table from 800 B.C. to 1920

To conclude this Outline, we give here a Table of Leading Events from the year 800 B.C. to 1920 A.D. Following that we give five time diagrams covering the period from 1000 B.C. onward, which present the trend of events in a graphic form.

It is well that the reader should keep in mind an idea of the true proportions of historical to geological time. The scale of the five diagrams at the end is such that by it the time diagram on page 142 would be about 8 1/2 times as long, that is to say about 4 feet; that on page 47 showing the interval since the Eoliths, 555 feet, and that on page 11 representing the whole of geological time would be somewhere between 12 and, at the longest and most probable estimate, 260 miles! Let the reader therefore take one of these chronological tables we give, and imagine it extended upon a long strip of paper to a distance of 55 feet. He would have to get up and walk about that distance to note the date of the painting of the Altamira caves, and he would have to go ten times that distance by the side of the same narrow strip to reach the earlier Neanderthalers. A mile or so from home, but probably much further away, the strip might be recording the last of the dinosaurs. And this on a scale which represents the time from Columbus to ourselves by three inches of space!

Chronology only begins to be precise enough to specify the exact year of any event after the establishment of the eras of the First Olympiad and the building of Rome.

About the year 1000 B.C. the Aryan peoples were establishing themselves in the peninsulas of Spain, Italy, and the Balkans, and they were established in North India. Cnossos was already destroyed, and the spacious times of Egypt, of Thotmes III, Amenophis III, and Rameses II were three or four centuries away. Weak monarchs of the, XXIst Dynasty were ruling in the Nile Valley. Israel was united under her early kings; Saul or David or possibly even Solomon may have been reigning. Sargon I (2750 B.C. of the Akkadian Sumerian Empire was a remote memory in Babylonian history, more remote than is Constantine the Great from the world of the present day. Hammurabi had been dead, a thousand years. The Assyrians were already dominating the less military Babylonians. In 1100 B.C. Tiglath Pileser I had taken Babylon. But there was no permanent conquest; Assyria and Babylonia were still separate empires. In China the new Chow dynasty was flourishing. Stonehenge in England was already a thousand years old.

The next two centuries saw a renascence of Egypt under the XXII Dynasty, the splitting up of the brief little Hebrew kindgom of Solomon, the spreading of the Greeks in the Balkans, South Italy and Asia Minor, and the days of Etruscan predominance in Central Italy. We may begin our list of ascertainable dates with

B.C.
800The building of Carthage
790The Ethiopian conquest of Egypt (founding the XXVth Dynasty)
776First Olympiad
753Rome built
745Tiglath Pileser III conquered Babylonia and founded the New Assyrian Empire
738Menahem, king of Israel, bought off Tiglath Pileser III
735Greeks settling in Sicily
722Sargon II armed the Assyrians with iron weapons
721He deported the Israelites
704Sennacherib
701His army destroyed by a pestilence on its way to Egypt
680Esarhaddon took Thebes in Egypt (overthrowing the Ethiopian XXVth Dynasty)
667Sardanapalus
664Psammetiehus I restored the freedom of Egypt and founded the XXVIth Dynasty (to 610). He was assisted against Assyria by Lydian troops sent by Gyges
608Necho of Egypt defeated Josiah, king of Judah, at the Battle of Megiddo
606Capture of Nineveh by the Chaldeans And Medes. Foundation of the Chaldean Empire
604Necho pushed to the Euphrates and was overthrown by Nebuchadnezzar II. Josiah fell with him
586Nebuchadnezzar carried off the Jews to Babylon. Many fled to Egypt and settled there
550Cyrus the Persian succeeded Cyaxares the Mede. Cyrus conquered Croesus. Buddha lived about this time. So also did Confucius and Lao Tse
539Cyrus took Babylon and founded the Persian Empire
527Peisistratus died
525Cambyses conquered Egypt
521Darius I, the son of Hystaspes, ruled from the Hellespont to the Indus. His expedition to Scythia
490Battle of Marathon
484Herodotus born. Aeschylus won his first prize for tragedy
480Battles of Thermopylae and Salamis
479The Battles of Plataea and Mycale completed the repulse of Persia
474Etruscan fleet destroyed by the Sicilian Greeks
470Voyage of Hanno
466Pericles
465Xerxes murdered
438Herodotus recited his History in Athens
431Peloponnesian War began (to 404)
428Pericles died. Herodotus died
427Aristophanes began his career. Plato born; he lived to 347.
401Retreat of the Ten Thousand
390Brennus sacked Rome
366Camillus built the Temple of Concord
359Philip became king of Macedonia
338Battle of Chaeronia
336Macedonian troops crossed into Asia, Philip murdered
334Battle of the Granicus
333Battle of Issus
332Alexander in Egypt
331Battle of Arbela
330Darius III killed
323Death of Alexander the Great
321Rise of Chandragupta in the Punjab. The Romans completely beaten by the Samnites at the battle of the Caudine Forks
303Chandragupta repulsed Seleucus
285Ptolemy Soter died
281Pyrrhus invaded Italy
280Battle of Heraclea
279Battle of Ausculum
278Gauls’ raid into Asia Minor and settlement in Galatia
275Pyrrhus left Italy
264First Punic War. (Asoka began to reign in Beharto 227) First gladiatorial games in Rome
260Battle of Mylae
256Battle of Ecnomus
246Shi Hwang-ti became king of Ch’in
242Battle of Aegatian Isles
241End of First Punic War
225Battle of Telamon. Roman armies in Illyria
220Shi Hwang-ti became emperor of China. [ ^Note that the date given to Shi Hwang-ti in the diagram on p. 142 is incorrect. ]
219Second Punic War
216Battle of Cannae
214Great Wall of China begun
210Death of Shi Hwang-ti
202Battle of Zama
201End of Second Punic War
200–197Rome at war with Macedonia
192War with the Seleucids
190Battle of Magnesia
149Third Punic War. (The Yueh-Chi came into Western Turkestan.)
146Carthage destroyed. Corinth destroyed
133Attalus bequeathed Pergamum to Rome. Tiberius Gracchus killed
121Caius, Gracchus, killed
118War with Jugurtha
106War with Jugurtha ended
102Marius drove back Germans
100Triumph of Marius. (Wu-ti conquering the Tarim valley.)
91Social war
89All Italians became Roman citizens
86Death of Marius
78Death of Sulla
73The revolt of the slaves under Spartacus
71Defeat and end of Spartacus
66Pompey led Roman troops to the Caspian and Euphrates. He encountered the Alani
64Mithridates of Pontus died
53Crassus killed at Carrhae. Mongolian elements with Parthians
48Julius Caesar defeated Pompey at Pharsalos
44Julius Caesar assassinated
31Battle of Actium
27Augustus Caesar princeps (until 14 A.D.)
4True date of birth of Jesus of Nazareth
A.D.Christian Era began
6Province of Moesia established
9Province of Pannonia established. Imperial boundary carried to the Danube
14Augustus died. Tiberius emperor
30Jesus of Nazareth crucified
37Caligula succeeded Tiberius
41Claudius (the first emperor of the legions) made emperor by pretorian guard after murder of Caligula
54Nero succeeded Claudius
61Boadicea massacred Roman garrison in Britain
68Suicide of Nero; Galba, Otho, Vitellus, emperors in succession
69Vespasian began the so-called Flavian dynasty
79Titus succeeded Vespasian
81Domitian
84North Britain annexed
96Nerva began the so-called dynasty of the Antonines
98Trajan succeeded Nerva
102Pan Chau on the Caspian Sea. (Indo-Scythians invading North India.)
117Hadrian succeeded Trajan. Roman Empire at its greatest extent
138Antoninus Pius succeeded Hadrian. (The Indo-Scythians at this time were destroying the last traces of Hellenic rule in India.)
150[ About this time Kanishka reigned in India, Kashgar, Yarkand, and Kotan. ]
161Marcus Aurelius succeeded Antoninus Pius
164Great plague began, and lasted to the death of M. Aurelius (180). This also devastated all Asia
180Death of Marcus Aurelius. (Nearly a century of war and disorder began in the Roman Empire.)
220End of the Han dynasty. Beginning of four hundred years of division in China
227Ardashir I (first Sassanid shah) put an end to Arsacid line in Persia
242Mani began his teaching
247Goths crossed Danube in a great raid
251Great victory of Goths. Decius killed
260Sapor I, the second Sassanid shah, took Antioch, captured the Emperor Valerian, and was cut up on his return from Asia Minor by Odenathus of Palmyra
269The Emperor Claudius defeated the Goths at Nish
210Aurelian became emperor
272Zenobia carried captive to Rome. End of the brief glories of Palmyra
275Probus succeeded Aurelian
276Goths in Pontus. The Emperor Probus forced back Franks and Alemanni
277Mani crucified in Persia
284Diocletian became emperor
303Diocletian persecuted the Christians
311Galerius abandoned the persecution of the Christians
312Constantine the Great became emperor
313Constantine presided over a Christian Council at Arles
321Fresh Gothic raids driven back
323Constantine presided over the Council of Nicaea
337Vandals driven by Goths obtained leave to settle in Pannonia
337Constantine baptized on his death-bed
354St. Augustine born
361–63Julian the Apostate attempted to substitute Mithraism for Christianity
379Theodosius the Great (a Spaniard) emperor
390The statute of Serapis at Alexandria broken up
392Theodosius the Great emperor of east and west
395Theodosius the Great died. Honorius and Arcadius redivided the empire with Stilicho and Alaric as their masters and protectors
410The Visigoths under Alaric captured Rome
425Vandals settling in south of Spain. Huns in Pannonia, Goths in Dalmatia. Visigoths and Suevi in Portugal and North Spain. English invading Britain
429Vandals under Genseric invaded Africa
439Vandals took Carthage
448Priscus visited Attila
451Attila raided Gaul and was defeated by Franks, Alemanni, and Romans at Troyes
453Death of Attila
455Vandals sacked Rome
470Ephthalites raid into India
476Odoacer, king of a medley of Teutonic tribes, informed Constantinople that there was no emperor in the West. End of the Western Empire
480St. Benedict born
481Clovis in France. The Merovingians
483Nestorian church broke away from the Orthodox Christian church
493Theodoric, the Ostrogoth, conquered Italy and became King of Italy, but was nominally subject to Constantinople. (Gothic kings in Italy. Goths settled on special confiscated lands as a garrison.)
527Justinian emperor
528Mihiragula, the (Ephthalite) Attila of India, overthrown
529Justinian closed the schools at Athens, which had flourished nearly a thousand years. Belisarius (Justinian’s general) took Naples
531Chosroes I began to reign
643Great plague in Constantinople
544St. Benedict died
553Goths expelled from Italy by Justinian. Cassiodorus founded his monastery
565Justinian died. The Lombards conquered most of North Italy (leaving Ravenna and Rome Byzantine). The Turks broke up the Ephthalites in Western Turkestan
570Muhammad born
579Chosroes I died. (The Lombards dominant in Italy.)
590Plague raged in Rome. (Gregory the Great-Gregory I-and the vision of St. Angelo.) Chosroes II began to reign
610Heraclius began to reign
619Chosroes II held Egypt, Jerusalem, Damascus, and had armies on Hellespont. Tang dynasty began in China
622The Hegira
623Battle of Badr
627Great Persian defeat at Nineveh by Heraclius. The Meccan Allies besieged Medina. Tai Tsung became Emperor of China
628Kavadh II murdered and succeeded his father, Chosroes II. Muhammad wrote letters to all the rulers of the earth
629Yuan Chwang started for India. Muhammad entered Mecca
632Muhammad died. Abu Bekr Caliph
634Battle of the Yarmuk. Moslems took Syria. Omar second Caliph
635Tai Tsung received Nestorian missionaries
637Battle of Kadessia
638Jerusalem surrendered to Omar
642Heraclius died
643Othman third Caliph
645Yuan Chwang returned to Singan
655Defeat of the Byzantine fleet by the Moslems
656Othman murdered at Medina
661Ali murdered
662Moawiya Caliph. (First of the Omayyad, caliphs.)
668The Caliph Moawiya attacked Constantinople by sea. Theodore of Tarsus became Archbishop of Canterbury
675Last of the sea attacks by Moawiya on Constantinople
687Pepin of Hersthal, mayor of the palace, reunited Austrasia and Neustria
711Moslem army invaded Spain from Africa
714Charles Martel, mayor of the palace
715The domains of the Caliph Walid I extended from the Pyrenees to China
717–18Suleiman, son and successor of Walid, failed to take Constantinople. The Omayyad line passed its climax
732Charles Martel defeated the Moslems near Poitiers
735Death of the Venerable Bede
743Walid II Caliph-the unbelieving Caliph
749Overthrow of the Omayyads. Abdul Abbas, the first Abbasid Caliph. Spain remained Omayyad. Beginning of the break-up of the Arab Empire
751Pepin crowned King of the French
755Martyrdom of St. Boniface
768Pepin died
771Charlemagne sole king
774Charlemagne conquered Lombardy
776Charlemagne in Dalmatia
786Haroun-al-Raschid Abbasid Caliph in Bagdad (to 809)
795Leo III became Pope (to 816)
800Leo crowned Charlemagne Emperor of the West
802Egbert, formerly an English refugee at the court of Charlemagne, established himself as King of Wessex
810Krum of Bulgaria defeated and killed the Emperor Nicephorus
814Charlemagne died, Louis the Pious succeeds him
828Egbert became first King of England
843Louis the Pious died, and the Carlovingian Empire went to pieces. Until 962 there was no regular succession of Holy Roman Emperors, though the title appeared intermittently
850About this time Rurik (a Northman) became ruler of Novgorod and Kieff
852Boris first Christian King of Bulgaria (to 884)
865The fleet of the Russians (Northmen) threatened Constantinople
886The Treaty of Alfred of England and Guthrum the Dane, establishing the Danes in the Danelaw
904Russian (Northmen) fleet off Constantinople
912Rolf the Ganger established himself in Normandy
919Henry the Fowler elected King of Germany
928Marozia imprisoned Pope John X
931John XI Pope (to 936)
936Otto I became King of Germany in succession to his father, Henry the Fowler
941Russian fleet again threatened Constantinople
955John XII Pope
960Northern Sung Dynasty began in China
962Otto I, King of Germany, crowned Emperor (first Saxon Emperor) by John XII
963Otto deposed John XII
969Separate Fatimite Caliphate set up in Egypt
973Otto II
983Otto III
987Hugh Capet became King of France. End of the Carlovingian line of French kings
1016Canute became King of England, Denmark, and Norway
1037Avicenna of Bokhara, the Prince of Physicians, died
1043Russian fleet threatened Constantinople
1066Conquest of England by William, Duke of Normandy
1071Revival of Islam under the Seljuk Turks. Battle of Melasgird
1073Hildebrand became Pope (Gregory VII) to 1085
1082Robert Guiscard captured Durazzo
1084Robert Guiscard sacked Rome
1087–99Urban II Pope
1094Pestilence
1095Urban II at Clermont summoned the First Crusade
1096Massacre of the People’s Crusade
1099Godfrey of Bouillon captured Jerusalem. Paschal II Pope (to 1118)
1138Kin Empire flourished. The Sung capital shifted from Nanking to Hang Chau
1147The Second Crusade. Foundation of the Christian Kingdom of Portugal
1169Saladin Sultan of Egypt
1176Frederick Barbarossa acknowledged supremacy of the Pope (Alexander III) at Venice
1187Saladin captured Jerusalem
1189The Third Crusade
1198Averroes, of Cordoba, the Arab philosopher, died. Innocent III Pope (to 1216). Frederick 11 (aged four), King of Sicily, became his ward
1202The Fourth Crusade attacked the Eastern Empire
1204Capture of Constantinople by the Latins
1206Kutub founded Moslem state at Delhi
1212The Children’s Crusade
1214Jengis Khan took Poking
1215Magna Carta signed
1216Honorius III Pope
1218Jengis Khan invaded Kharismia
1221Failure and return of the Fifth Crusade. St. Dominic died (the Dominicans)
1226St. Francis of Assisi died. (The Franciscans.)
1227Jengis Khan died, Khan from the Caspian to the Pacific, and was succeeded by Ogdai Khan. Gregory IX Pope
1228Frederick II embarked upon the Sixth Crusade, and acquired Jerusalem
1234Mongols completed conquest of the Kin Empire with the help of the Sung Empire
1239Frederick II excommunicated for the second time
1240Mongols destroyed Kieff. Russia tributary to the Mongols
1241Mongol victory at Liegnitz in Silesia
1244The Egyptian Sultan recaptured Jerusalem. This led to the Seventh Crusade
1245Frederick II re-excommunicated. The men of Schwyz burnt the castle of New Habsburg
1250St. Louis of France ransomed. Frederick II, the, last Hohenstaufen Emperor, died. German interregnum until 1273
1251Mangu Khan became Great Khan. Kublai Khan governor of China
1258Hulagu Khan took and destroyed Bagdad
1260Kublai Khan became Great Khan. Ketboga defeated in Palestine
1261The Greeks recaptured Constantinople from the Latins
1269Kublai Khan sent a message of inquiry to the Pope by the older Polos
1271Marco Polo started upon his travels
1273Rudolf of Habsburg elected Emperor. The Swiss formed their Everlasting League
1280Kublai Khan founded the Yuan Dynasty in China
1292Death of Kublai Khan
1293Roger Bacon, the prophet of experimental science, died
1294Boniface VIII Pope (to 1303)
1295Marco Polo returned to Venice
1303Death of Pope Boniface VIII after the outrage of Anagni by Guillaume de Nogaret
1305Clement V Pope. The papal court set up at Avignon
1308Duna Scotus died
1318Four Franciscans burnt for heresy at Marseilles
1347Occam died
1348The Great Plague, the Black Death
1358The Jacquerie in France
1360In China the Mongol (Yuan) Dynasty fell, and was succeeded by the Ming Dynasty (to 1644)
1367Timurlane assumed the title of Great Khan
1377Pope Gregory XI returned to Rome. The Great Schism. Urban VI in Rome, Clement VII at Avignon
1381Peasant revolt in England. Wat Tyler murdered in the presence of King Richard II
1384Wycliffe died
1398Huss preached Wycliffism at Prague
1405Death of Timurlane
1414–18The Council of Constance. Huss burnt (1415)
1417The Great Schism ended, Martin V Pope
1420The Hussites revolted. Martin V preached a crusade against them,
1431The Catholic Crusaders dissolved before the Hussites at Domazlice. The Council of Basle met
1436The Hussites came to terms with the church
1439Council of Basle created a fresh schism in the church
1445Discovery of Cape Verde by the Portuguese
1446First printed books (Coster in Haarlem)
1449End of the Council of Basle
1453Ottoman Turks under Muhammad II took Constantinople
1480Ivan III, Grand-duke of Moscow, threw off the Mongol allegiance
1481Death of the Sultan Muhammad II while preparing for the conquest of Italy. Bayazid II Turkish Sultan (to 1512)
1486Diaz rounded the Cape of Good Hope
1492Columbus crossed the Atlantic to America. Rodrigo Borgia, Alexander VI, Pope (to 1503)
1493Maximilian I became Emperor
1498Vasco da Gama sailed round the Cape to India
1499Switzerland became an independent republic
1500Charles V born
1509Henry VIII King of England
1512Selim Sultan (to 1520). He bought the title of Caliph. Fall of Soderini (and Machiavelli) in Florence
1513Leo X Pope
1515Francis I King of France
1517Selim annexed Egypt. Luther propounded his theses at Wittenberg
1519Leonardo da Vinci died. Magellan’s expedition started to sail round the world. Cortez entered Mexico city
1520Suleiman the Magnificent, Sultan (to 1566), who ruled from Bagdad to Hungary. Charles V Emperor
1521Luther at the Diet of Worms. Loyola wounded at Pampeluna
1525Baber won the battle of Panipat, captured Delhi, and founded the Mogul Empire
1527The German troops in Italy, under the Constable of Bourbon, took and pillaged Rome
1529Suleiman besieged Vienna,
1530Pizarro invaded Peru. Charles V crowned, by the Pope. Henry VIII began his quarrel with the Papacy
1532The Anabaptists seized Munster
1535Fall of the Anabaptist rule in Munster
1539The Company of Jesus founded
1543Copernicus died
1545The Council of Trent (to 1563) assembled to put the church in order
1546Martin Luther died
1547Ivan IV (the Terrible) took the title of Tsar of Russia. Francis I died
1549First Jesuit missions arrived in South America
1552Treaty of Passau. Temporary pacification of Germany
1556Charles V abdicated. Akbar Great Mogul (to 1005). Ignatius of Loyola died
1558Death of Charles V
1563End of the Council of Trent and the reform of the Catholic Church
1564Galileo born
1566Suleiman the Magnificent died
1567Revolt of the Netherlands
1568Execution of Counts Egmont and Horn
1571Kepler born
1573Siege of Alkmaar
1578Harvey born
1583Sir Walter Raleigh’s expedition to Virginia
1601Tycho Brahe died
1603James I King of England and Scotland. Dr. Gilbert died
1605Jehangir Great Mogul
1606Virginia Company founded
1609Holland independent
1618Thirty Years’ War began
1620Mayflower expedition founded New Plymouth. First negro slaves landed at Jamestown (Va.)
1625Charles I of England
1626Sir Francis Bacon (Lord Verulam) died
1628Shah Jehan Great Mogul. The English Petition of Right
1629Charles I of England began his eleven years of rule without a parliament
1630Kepler died
1632Leeuwenhoek born. Gustavus Adolphus killed at the Battle of Lutzen
1634Wallenstein murdered
1638Japan closed to Europeans (until 1865)
1640Charles I of England summoned the Long Parliament
1641Massacre of the English in Ireland
1642Galileo died. Newton born
1643Louis XIV began his reign of seventy-two years
1644The Manchus ended the Ming dynasty
1645Swine pens in the inner town of Leipzig pulled down
1648Treaty of Westphalia. Thereby Holland and Switzerland were recognized as free republics and Prussia became important. The treaty gave a complete victory neither to the Imperial Crown nor to the Princes. War of the Fronde; it ended in the complete victory of the French crown
1649Execution of Charles I of England
1658Aurungzeb Great Mogul. Cromwell died
1660Charles II of England
1674New Amsterdam finally became British by treaty and was renamed New York
1683The last Turkish attack on Vienna defeated by John III of Poland
1688The British Revolution. Flight of James II. William and Mary began to reign
1689Peter the Great of Russia. (To 1725)
1690Battle of the Boyne in Ireland
1694Voltaire born
1701Frederick I first King of Prussia
1704John Locke, the father of modern democratic theory, died
1707Death of Aurungzeb. The empire of the Great Mogul disintegrated
1713Frederick the Great of Prussia born
1714George I of Britain
1715Louis XV of France
1727Newton died. George II of Britain
1732Oglethorpe founded Georgia
1736Nadir Shah raided India. (The beginning of twenty years of raiding and disorder in India.)
1740Maria-Theresa began to reign. (Being a woman, she could not be empress. Her husband, Francis I, was emperor until his death in 1765, when her son, Joseph II, succeeded him.) Accession of Frederick the Great, King of Prussia
1741The Empress Elizabeth of Russia began to reign
1755–63Britain and France struggled for America and India. France in alliance with Austria and Russia against Prussia and Britain (1756–63); the Seven Years’ War
1757Battle of Plassey
1759The British general, Wolfe, took Quebec
1760George III of Britain
1762The Empress Elizabeth of Russia died. Murder of the Tsar Paul, and accession of Catherine the Great of Russia (to 1796)
1763Peace of Paris; Canada ceded to Britain. British dominant in India
1764Battle of Buxar
1769Napoleon Bonaparte born
1774Louis XVI began his reign. Suicide of Clive. The American revolutionary drama began
1775Battle of Lexington
1776Declaration of Independence by the United States of America
1778J. J. Rousseau, the creator of modern democratic sentiment, died
1780End of the reign of Maria-Theresa. The Emperor Joseph. (1765 to 1790) succeeded her in the hereditary Habsburg dominions
1783Treaty of Peace between Britain and the new United States of America. Quaco set free in Massachusetts
1787The Constitutional Convention of Philadelphia set, up the Federal Government of the United States. France discovered to be bankrupt. The Assembly of the Notables
1788First Federal Congress of the United States at New York
1789The French States-General assembled. Storming of the Bastille
1791The Jacobin Revolution. Flight to Varennes
1792France declared war on Austria. Prussia declared war on France. Battle of Valmy. France became a republic
1793Louis XVI beheaded
1794Execution of Robespierre and end of the Jacobin republic. Rule of the Convention
1795The Directory. Bonaparte suppressed a revolt and went to Italy as commander-in-chief
1797By the Peace of Campo Formio, Bonaparte destroyed the Republic of Venice
1798Bonaparte went to Egypt. Battle of the Nile
1799Bonaparte returned. He became First Consul with enormous powers
1800Legislative union of Ireland and England enacted January 1st, 1801 Napoleon’s campaign against Austria. Battles of Marengo (in Italy) and Hohenlinden (Moreau’s victory)
1801Preliminaries of peace between France, England, and Austria signed
1803Bonaparte occupied Switzerland, and so precipitated war
1804Bonaparte became Emperor. Francis II took the title of Emperor of Austria in 1805, and in 1806 he dropped the title of Holy Roman Emperor. So the “Holy Roman Empire” came to an end
1805Battle of Trafalgar. Battles of Ulm and Austerlitz
1806Prussia overthrown at Jena
1807Battles of Eylau and Friedland and Treaty of Tilsit
1808Napoleon made his brother Joseph King of Spain
1810Spanish America became republican
1811Alexander withdrew from the “Continental System”
1812Napoleon’s retreat from Moscow
1814Abdication of Napoleon. Louis XVIII
1815The Waterloo campaign. The Treaty of Vienna
1819The First Factory Act passed through the efforts of Robert Owen
1821The Greek revolt
1824Charles X of France
1825Nicholas I of Russia. First railway, Stockton to Darlington
1827Battle of Navarino
1829Greece independent
1830A year of disturbance. Louis Philippe ousted Charles X. Belgium broke away from Holland. Leopold of Saxe- Coburg-Gotha became king of this new country, Belgium. Russian Poland revolted ineffectually
1832The First Reform Bill in Britain restored the democratic character of the British Parliament
1835The word socialism first used
1837Queen Victoria
1840Queen Victoria married Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg- Gotha
1848Another year of disturbance. Republics in France and Rome. The Pan-slavic conference at Prague. All Germany united in a parliament at Frankfort. German unity destroyed by the King of Prussia
1851The Great Exhibition Of London
1852Napoleon III Emperor of the French
1854Perry (second expedition) landed in Japan. Nicholas I occupied the Danubian provinces of Turkey
1854–56Crimean War
1856Alexander II of Russia
1857The Indian Mutiny
1859Robert Owen died
1859Franco-Austrian war. Battles of Magenta and Solferino
1861Victor Emmanuel First King of Italy. Abraham Lincoln became President, U.S.A. The American Civil War began
1863British bombarded a Japanese town
1864Maximilian became Emperor of Mexico
1865Surrender of Appomattox Court House. Japan opened to the world
1866Prussia and Italy attacked Austria (and the south German states in alliance with her). Battle of Sadowa
1867The Emperor Maximilian shot
1870Napoleon III declared war against Prussia
1871Paris surrendered (January). The King of Prussia became William I, “German Emperor”. The Hohenzollern Peace of Frankfort
1875The “Bulgarian atrocities”
1877Russo-Turkish War. Treaty of San Stefano, Queen Victoria became Empress of India
1878The Treaty of Berlin. The Armed Peace of forty-six years began in western Europe
1881The Battle of Majuba Hill. The Transvaal free
1883Britain occupied Egypt
1886Gladstone’s first Irish Home Rule Bill
1888Frederick II (March), William II (June), German Emperors
1890Bismarck dismissed. Heligoland ceded to Germany by Lord Salisbury
1894–95Japanese war with China
1895“Unionist” (Imperialist) government in Britain
1896Battle of Adowa
1898The Fashoda quarrel between France and Britain. Germany acquired Kiau-Chau
1899The war in South Africa began (Boer war)
1900The Boxer risings in China. Siege of the Legations at Peking
1904The British invaded Tibet
1904–05Russo-Japanese war
1906The “Unionist” (Imperialist) party in Great Britain defeated by the Liberals upon the question of tariffs
1907The Confederation of South Africa established
1908Austria annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina
1909M. Bleriot flew in an aeroplane from France to England
1911Italy made war on Turkey and seized Tripoli
1912China became a republic
1913The Balkan league, made war on Turkey. Bloodshed at Londonderry in Ireland caused by “Unionist” gun running
1914The Great War in Europe began (for which see special time chart, pp. 1052–53)
1917The two Russian revolutions. Establishment of the Bolshevik regime in Russia
1919–20The Clemenceau Peace of Versailles
1920First meeting of the League of Nations, from which Germany, Austria, Russia, and Turkey were excluded, and at which the United States was not represented

And here our List of Events breaks off with a note of interrogation.