[1] Here in this history of life we are doing our best to give only known and established facts in the broadest way, and to reduce to a minimum the speculative element that must necessarily enter into our account. The reader who is curious upon this question of life’s beginning will find a very good summary of current suggestions done by Professor L. L. Woodruff in President Lull’s excellent compilation The Evolution of the Earth (Yale University Press). Professor H. F. Osborn’s Origin and Evolution of Life is also a very vigorous and suggestive book upon this subject, but it demands a fair knowledge of physics and chemistry. Two very stimulating essays for the student are A. H. Church’s Botanical Memoirs. No. 183, Ox. Univ. Press.

[2] Phanerogams

[3] Phanerogams

[4] Dr. Marie Stopes, Monograph on the Constitution of Coal.

[5] They secrete a nutritive fluid on which the young feeds from glands scattered over the skin. But the glands are not gathered together into mammae with nipples for suckling. The stuff oozes out, the mother lies on her back, and the young browse upon her moist skin.

[6] Some writers suppose that a Wood and Shell Age preceded the earliest Stone Age. South Sea Islanders, Negroes, and Bushmen still make. use of wood and the sharp-edged shells of land and water molluscs as implements.

[7] Three phases of human history before the knowledge and use of metals are often distinguished. First there is the so-called Eolithic Age (dawn of stone implements), then the Palaeolitihic Age (old stone implements), and finally an age in which the implements are skillfully made and frequently well finished and polished (Neolithic Age). The Palaeolithic Period is further divided into an earlier (sub-human) and a later (fully human) period. We shall comment on these divisions later.

[8] From Chelles and Le Moustier in France.

[9] Osmond Fisher, quoted in Wright’s Quaternary Ice Age.

[10] Social Origins, by Andrew Lang, and Primal Law, by J. J. Atkinson. (Longmans, 1903.)

[11] This first origin of fire was suggested by Sir John Lubbock (Prehistoric Times), and Ludwig Hopf, in The Human Species, says that “Flints and pieces of pyrites are found in close proximity in palaeolithic settlements near the remains of mammoths.”

[12] The opinion that the Neanderthal race (Homo Neanderthalensis) is an extinct species which did not interbreed with the true men (Homo sapiens) is held by Professor Osborn, and it is the view to which the writer inclines and to which he has pointed in the treatment of this section; but it is only fair to the reader to note that many writers do not share this view. They write and speak of living “Neanderthalers” in contemporary populations, One observer has written in the past of such types in the west of Ireland; another has observed them in Greece. These so-called “living Neanderthalers” have neither the peculiarities of neck, thumb, nor teeth that distinguish the Neanderthal race of pre-men. The cheek teeth of true men, for instance, have what we call fangs, long fangs; the Neanderthaler’s cheek tooth is a more complicated and specialized cheek tooth, a long tooth with short fangs, and his canine teeth were less marked, less like dog- teeth, than ours. Nothing could show more clearly that he was on a different line of development. We must remember that so far only western Europe has been properly explored for Palaeolithic remains, and that practically all we know of the Neanderthal species comes from that area (see Map, p. 56). No doubt the ancestor of Homo sapiens (which species includes the Tasmanians) was a very similar and parallel creature to Homo neanderthalensis. And we are not so far from that ancestor as to have eliminated not indeed “Neanderthal,’) but”Neanderthaloid" types. The existence of such types no more proves that the Neanderthal species, the makers of the Chellean and Mousterian implements, interbred with Homo sapiens in the European area than do monkey-faced people testify to an interbreeding with monkeys; or people with faces like horses, that there is an equine strain in our population.

[13] R. I. Pocock.

[14] From the cave at Mas d’Azil.

[15] But our domestic cattle are derived from some form of aurochs – probably from some lesser Central Asiatic Variety.—H. H. J.

[16] “The various finds of human remains in North America for which the geological antiquity has been claimed have been thus briefly passed under review. In ever instance here enough of the bones is preserved for comparison, the evidence bears witness against the geological antiquity of the remains and for their close affinity to or identity with the modern Indian.” (Smithsonian Institute, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 33. Dr. Hrdlicka.) But J. Deniker quotes evidence to show that eoliths and early palaeoliths have been found in America. See his compact but full summary of the evidence and views for and against in his Races, of Man, pp. 510, 511.

[17] “Questioned by some authorities,” says J. Deniker in The Races of Man.

[18] Native copper is still found to-day in Italy, Hungary, Cornwall, and many other places.

[19] Ridgeway (Early Age of Greece) says a lump of tin has been found in the Swiss pile-dwelling deposits.

[20] Tin was always known as a foreign import in Egypt under the XVIIIth Dynasty; there is (rare) Mycenaean tin, and there are (probably later, but not clearly dated) tin objects in the Caucasus. Bit it is very difficult to distinguish tin from antimony. There is a good deal of Cyprus bronze which contains antimony; a good deal which seems to be tin is antimony – the ancients trying to get tin, but actually getting antimony and thinking it was tin.—J. L. M.

[21] In connection with iron, note the distinction of ornamental and useful iron. Ornamental iron, a rarity, perhaps meteoric, as jewelry or magical stuff, occurs in east Europe sporadically in the time of the XVIIIth Dynasty. This must be distinguished from the copious useful iron which appears in Greece much later from the North – J. L. M.

[22] Caesar de Bello Gallico says Britons tabooed hare, fowl, and goose.—G. Wh.

[23] All Old World peoples who had entered upon the Neolithic stage grew and ate wheat, but the American Indians must have developed agriculture independently in America after their separation from the Old World populations. They never had wheat. Their cultivation was maize, Indian corn, a New World grain.

[24] Poultry and hens’ eggs were late additions to the human cuisine, in spite of the large part they now play in our dietary. The hen is not mentioned in the Old Testament (but note the allusion to an egg, Job vi, 6) nor by Homer, Up to about 1,500 B.C. the only fowls in the world were jungle denizens in India and Burnish. The crowing of jungle cocks is noted by Glasfurd in his admirable accounts of tiger shooting as the invariable preliminary of dawn in the Indian jungle. Probably poultry were first domesticated in Burmah. They got to China, according to the records, only about 1,100 B.C. They reached Greece via Persia before the time of Socrates… In the New Testament the crowning of the cock reproaches Peter for his desertion of the Master.

[25] Later Palaeolithic bone whistles are known. One may guess that reed pipes were an early invention.

[26] The Quaternary Ice Age.

[27] Glasfurd’s Rifle and Romance in the Indian Jungle, 1915.

[28] Ludwig Hopf, in The Human Selected, calls the later Palaeolithic art “masculine” and the Neolithic “feminine.” The pottery was made by women, he says, and that accounts for it. But the arrow-heads were made by men, and there was nothing to prevent Neolithic men from taking scraps of bone or slabs of rock and carving them – had they dared. We suggest they did not dare to do so.

[29] My Diaries under date of July 25, 1894.

[30] “Sunstone” culture became of the sun worship and the megaliths. This is not a very happily chosen term. It suggests a division equivalent to palaeolithic (old stone) and neolithic (new stone), whereas it is’ a subdivision of the neolithic culture.

[31] Megalithic monuments have been made quite recently by primitive Indian peoples.

[32] Sir Arthur Evans suggests that in America sign-language arose before speech, because the sign-language is common to all Indians in North America, whereas the languages are different. See his Anthropology and the Classics.— G. M.

[33] The four characters indicating “Affairs, query, imperative, old,” placed in that order, for example, represent “Why walk in the ancient ways?” The Chinaman gives the bare cores of his meaning; the Englishman gets to it by a bold metaphor. He may be talking of conservatism in cooking or book-binding, but he will say: “Why walk in the ancient ways?” Mr. Arthur Waley, in the interesting essay on Chinese thought and poetry which precedes his book, 170 Chinese Poems (Constable, 1918), makes it clear how in these fields Chinese thought is kept practical and restricted by the limitations upon metaphor the contracted structure of Chinese imposes

[34] The Polynesians appear to be a later eastward extension of the dark whites or brown peoples.

[35] We shall use ‘ Mesopotamia’ here loosely for the Euphrates-Tigris country generally. Strictly, of course, as its name indicates, Mesopotamia (mid-rivers) means only the country between those two great rivers. That country in the fork was probably very marshy and unhealthy in early times (Sayce) until it was drained by man, and the early cities grew up west of the Euphrates and east of the Tigris. Probably these rivers then flowed separately into the Persian Gulf.

[36] Excavations conducted at Eridu by Capt. R. Campbell Thompson during the recent war have revealed an early Neolithic agricultural stage, before the invention of writing or the use of bronze beneath the earliest Sumerian foundations. The crops were cut by sickles of earthenware. Capt. Thompson thinks that these pre-Sumerian people were not of Sumerian race, but proto-Elamites. Entirely similar Neolithic remains have been found at Susa, once the chief city of Elam.

[37] Sayce, in Babylonian and Assyrian Life, estimates that in 6,500 B.C. Eridu was on the sea-coast.

[38] Of unknown language and race, “neither Sumerian nor Semites,” says Sayce. Their central city was Susa. Their archaeology is still largely an unworked mine. They are believed by some, says Sir. H. H. Johnston, to have been negroid in type. There is a strong negroid strain in the modern people of Elam.

[39] II Kings, xv. 29, and xvi. 7 et seq.; II Kings xvii. 3.

[40] To be murdered by his sons.

[41] Winckler (Craig), History of Babylonia and Assyria.

[42] 3,733 B.C., Wallis Budge.

[43] The great pyramid is 450 feet high and its side 700 feet long. It is calculated (says Wallis Budge) to weigh 4,883,000 tons. All this stone was lugged into place chiefly by human muscle.

[44] There are variants to these names, and to most Egyptian names, for few self- respecting Egyptologists will tolerate the spelling of their colleagues, One may find, for instance, Thethmosis, Thoutmosis, Tahutmes, Thutmose, or Tethmosis; Amunothph, Amenhotep or Amenothes. A pleasing variation is to break up the name, as, for instance, Amen Hetep. This particular little constellation of variants is given here not only because it is amusing, but because it is desirable that the reader should know such variations exist. For most names the rule of this book has been to follow whatever usage has established itself in English literature , regardless of the possible contemporary pronunciation. Amenophiis for example, has been so written in English books for two centuries. It came into the language by indirect routes, but it is now as fairly established as is Damascus as the English name of a Syrian town. Nevertheless, there are limits to this classicism. The writer, after some vacillation has abandoned Oliver Goldsmith and Dr. Johnson in the case of “Peisistratus” and “Keltic,” which were formerly spelt “Pisistratus” and “Celtic.”

[45] China and the League of Nations, a pamphlet by Mr. Liang-Chi-Chao. (Pekin Leader Office.)

[46] F. Ratzel, History of Mankind.

[47] […]

[48] Sayce.

[49] Mosso, The Dawn of Mediterranean Civilization.— R. L. C.

[50] Cecil Torr, Ancient Ships.

[51] There were no domesticated camels in Africa until after the Persian conquest of Egypt. This must have greatly restricted the desert routes. (See Bunbury, History of Ancient Geography, note to Chap. VIII.) But the Sahara desert of 3,000 or 2,000 years ago was less parched and sterile than it is to-day. From rock engravings we may deduce the theory that the desert was crossed from oasis to oasis by riding oxen and by ox-carts: perhaps, also, on horses and asses. The camel as a beast of transport was seemingly not introduced into North Africa till the Arab invasions of the seventh century A.D. The fossil remains of camels are found in Algeria, and wild camels may have lingered in the wastes of the Sahara and Somaliland till the domesticated camel was introduced. The Nubian wild ass also seems to have extended its range to the Sahara – H. H. J.

[52] There was Sumerian trade organized round the temples before the Semites got into Babylonia. See Hall and King, Archaeological Discoveries in Western Asia.— E. B.

[53] Iron bars of fixed weight were used for coin in Britain. Caesar, De Bello Gallico.— G. Wh.

[54] The earliest coinage of the west coast of Asia Minor was in electrum, a mixture of gold and silver, and there is an interesting controversy as to whether the first issues were stamped by cities, temples, or private bankers.—P. G.

[55] Small change was in existence- before the time of Alexander. The Athenians had a range of exceedingly small silver coins running almost down to the size of a pinhead which were generally carried in the mouth; a character in Aristophanes was suddenly assaulted, and swallowed his change in consequence.—P. G.

[56] There is an inn-keeper in Aristophanes, but it may be inferred from the circumstance that she is represented as letting lodgings in hell, that the early inn left much to be desired.—P. G.

[57] See the Encyclopaedia Brit., Article China, p. 218.

[58] The writer’s friend, Mr. L. Y. Chen, thinks that this is only partially true. He thinks that the emperors insisted upon a minute and rigorous study of the set classics in order to check intellectual innovation. This was especially the case with the Ming emperors, the first of whom, when reorganizing the examination system on 9, narrower basis, said definitely, “This will bring all the intellectuals of the world into my trap.” The Five Classics and the Four Books have imprisoned the mind of China.

[59] In his Dawn of Astronomy.

[60] Cp. Moses and the Egyptian Magicians.

[61] See the last two verses of the Second Book of Chronicles, and Ezra, ch. i.

[62] There were literary expressions of social discontent in Egypt before 2,000 B.C. See “Social Forces and Religion” in Breasted’s Religion and Thought in Ancient Egypt for some of the earliest complaints of the common man under the ancient civilizations.

[63] From casta, a word of Portuguese origin; the Indian word is varna, colour.

[64] In the time of Confucius classes were much more fixed than later. Under the Han dynasty the competitive examination system was not yet established. Scholars were recommended for appointments by local dignitaries, etc.—L. Y. C.

[65] Damascus was already making Damask, and “Damasceining” steel.

[66] See also G. B. Gray, A Critical Introduction to the Old Testament.

[67] This may seem to contradict Genesis xx. 15, and xxi. and xxvi. various verses, but compare with this the Encyclopaedia Biblica article Philistines.

[68] That is, where is the glory?

[69] Estimates of the cubit vary. The greatest is 44 inches. This would extend the width to seventy-odd feet.

[70] But one version of the Creation story and the Eden story, though originally from Babylon, seem to have been known to the Hebrews before the exile.—G. W. B.

[71] Fletcher H. Swift’s Education in Ancient Israel from Earliest Times to A.D. 70 is an interesting account of the way in which the Jewish religion, because it was a literature-sustained religion, led to the first efforts to provide elementary education for all the children in the community.

[72] “The Keltic group of languages, of which it has been said that they combined an Aryan vocabulary with a Berber (or Iberian) grammar.” —Sir Harry Johnston.

[73] Roger Pocock’s Horses is a good and readable book on these questions.

[74] But these may have been an originally Semitic people who learnt an Aryan speech.

[75] Some Aspects of Hindu Life in India. Paper read to the Royal Society of Arts, Nov, 28, 1918.

[76] Vowels were less necessary for the expression of a Semitic language. In the early Semitic alphabets only A, I, and U were provided with symbols, but for such a language as Greek, in which many of the inflectional endings are vowels, a variety of vowel signs was indispensable.

[77] From ostrakon, a tile; the voter wrote the name on a tile or shell.

[78] 776 B.C. is the year of the First Olympiad, a valuable starting point in Greek chronology.

[79] it is, at least, doubtful whether any change of climate expelled either lion or elephant from southeast Europe and Asia Minor; the cause of their gradual disappearance was – I think – nothing but Man, increasingly well armed for the chase. Lions lingered in the Balkan peninsula till about the fourth century B.C., if not later. Elephants had perhaps disappeared from western Asia by the eighth century B.C. The lion (much bigger than the existing form) stayed on in southern Germany till the Neolithic period. The panther inhabited Greece, southern Italy, and southern Spain likewise till the beginning of the historical period (say 3,000 B.C.).—H. H. J.

[80] But a thousand years earlier the Hittites seem to have had paved highroads running across their country.

[81] Winckler, in Helmolt’s Universal History.

[82] Ancient Greek Literature, by Gilbert Murray (Heinemann, 1911).

[83] Plutarch.

[84] For an account of his views, see Burnet’s Early Greek Philosophy. Gomperz’ Greek Thinkers is also a good book for this section.

[85] “But it was not only against the lives , properties, and liberties of Athenian citizens that the Thirty made war. They were not less solicitous to extinguish the intellectual force and education of the city, a project so perfectly in harmony both with the sentiment and practice of Sparta, that they counted on the support of their foreign allies. Among the ordinances which they promulgated was one, expressly forbidding any one ‘to teach the art of words’. The edict of the Thirty was, in fact, a general suppression of the higher class of teachers or professors, above the rank of the elementary (teacher of letters or) grammatist. If such an edict could have been maintained in force for a generation, combined with the other mandates of the Thirty – the city out of which Sophocles and Euripides had just died, and in which Plato and Isocrates were in vigorous age, would have been degraded to the intellectual level of the meanest community in Greece. It was not uncommon for a Grecian despot to suppress all those assemblies wherein youths came together for the purpose of common training, either intellectual or gymnastic, as well as the public banquets and clubs or associations, as being dangerous to his authority, tending to elevation of courage, and to a consciousness of political rights among the citizens.”—Grote’s History of Greece

[86] Mahaffy.

[87] Ancient Greek Literature.

[88] Jung in his Psychology of the Unconscious is very good in his Chapter on the differences between ancient (pre-Athenian) thought and modern thought. The former he calls Undirected Thinking, the latter Directed Thinking. The former was a thinking In images, akin to dreaming; the latter a thinking in words. Science is an organization of directed thinking. The Antique spirit (before the Greek thinkers i.e.) created not science but mythology. The ancient human world was a world of subjective fantasies like the world of children and uneducated young people to-day, and like the world of savages and dreams. Infantile thought and dreams are a re-echo of prehistoric and savage methods of thinking. Myths, says Jung, are the mass dreams of peoples, and dreams the myths of individuals. We have already directed the reader’s attention to the resemblance of the early gods of civilization to the fantasies of children. The work of hard and disciplined thinking by means of carefully analyzed words and statements which was begun by the Greek thinkers and resumed by the scholastic philosophers of whom we shall tell in the middle ages, was a necessary preliminary to the development of modern science.

[89] “For the proper administration of justice and for the distribution of authority it is necessary that the citizens be acquainted with each other’s characters, so that, where this cannot be, much mischief ensues, both in the use of authority and in the administration of justice; for it is not just to decide arbitrarily, as must be the case with excessive population.” Aristotle: Politics.

[90] Mahaffy. Their names have undergone various changes – e.g., Condahar (Iskender) and Secunderabad.

[91] D. G. Hogarth.

[92] Legge, Forerunners and Rivals of Christianity.

[93] Pronounced Ashoka.

[94] The Burmese Chronicle, quoted by Rhys Davids.

[95] The Madhurattha Vilasini,.

[96] Rhys Davids Buddhism.

[97] See R. F. Johnston, Buddhist China.—L. C. B.

[98] Hue’s Travels in Tartary, Thibet, and China.

[99] S. N. Fu.

[100] Hirth’s The Ancient History of China.

[101] Latin Poeni = Carthaginians. Punicus (adj.) = Carthaginian, i.e. Phœnician.

[102] Ferrero, The Greatness and Decline of Rome.

[103] J. Wells, Short History of Rome to the Death of Augustus.

[104] J. Wells, op. cit.

[105] Plutarch, Life of Cato.

[106] Julius Caesar (60 B.C.) caused the proceedings of the Senate to be published by having them written up upon bulletin boards, in albo (upon the white). It had been the custom to publish the annual edict of the praetor in this fashion. There were professional letter-writers who sent news by special courier to rich country correspondents, and these would copy down the stuff upon the Album (white board). Cicero, while he was governor in Cilicia, got the current news from such a professional correspondent. He complains in one letter that it was not what he wanted; the expert was too full of the chariot races and other sporting intelligence, and failed to give any view of the political situation. Obviously this news-letter system was available only for public men in prosperous circumstances.

[107] Authorities differ here. Mayor says thumbs up (to the breast) meant death and thumbs down meant “Lower that sword.” The popular persuasion is that thumbs down meant death.

[108] A little more needs to be said upon the subject. The Greeks cited gladiatorial shows as reason for regarding the Romans as Barbaroi, and there were riots when some Roman proconsul tried to introduce them in Corinth. Among Romans, the better people evidently disliked them, but as a sort of shyness prevented them from frankly denouncing them as cruel. For instance, Didero, when he had to attend the Circus, took his tablets and his secretary with him, and didn’t look. He expresses particular disgust at the killing of an elephant; and somebody in Tacitus (Drusus, Ann. 1.76) was unpopular because he was too fond of gladiatorial bloodshed—’ quamquam vili sanguine nimis gaudens’ (‘rejoicing too much in blood, worthless blood though it was’). The games were unhesitatingly condemned by Greek philosophy, and at different times two cynics and one Christian gave their lives in the arena, protesting against them, before they were abolished.¶ “I do not think Christianity had any such relation to slavery as is here stated. St. Paul’s actions in sending back a slave to his master, and his injunction, ‘Slaves, obey your masters,’ were regularly quoted on the pro-slavery side, down to the nineteenth century; on the other hand, both the popular philosophies and the Mystery religions were against slavery in their whole tendency, and Christianity of course in time became the chief representative of these movements. Probably the best test is the number of slaves who occupied posts of honour in the religious and philosophic systems, like Epicetus, for instance, or the many saves who hold offices in the Mithraic Inscriptions. I do not happen to know if any slaves were made Christian bishops, but by analogy I should think it likely that some were. In all the Mystery religions, as soon as you entered the community, and had communion with God, earthly distinctions shrivelled away.”—G. M.

[109] Greatness and Decline of Rome bk. i. ch, xi.

[110] Ferrero.

[111] Ferrero.

[112] Plutarch. To which, however, G. M. adds the following note: “It is generally believed that Sulla died through bursting a blood-vessel in a fit of temper. The story of abominable vices seems to be only the regular slander of the Roman mob against anyone who did not live in public.”

[113] Plutarch.

[114] The bow was probably the composite bow, so-called because it is made of several plates (five or so) of horn, like the springs of a carriage: it discharges a high-speed arrow with a twang. This was the bow the Mongols used. This short composite bow (it was not a long bow) was quite old in human experience. It was the bow of Odysseus; the Assyrians had it in a modified form. It went out in Greece, but it survived as the Mongol bow. It was quite short, very stiff to pull, with a flat trajectory, a remarkable range, and a great noise (cp. Homer’s reference to the twang of the bow). It went out in the Mediterranean because the climate was not good for it, and because there were insufficient animals to supply the horn.—J. L. M.

[115] H. S. Jones in The Encyclopaedia Britannica, article “Rome.”

[116] Gibbon.

[117] See Legge, Forerunners and Rivals of Christianity,

[118] E. H. Parker, A Thousand Years of the Tartars.

[119] Even in Eastern Turkestan there are still strong evidences of Nordic blood in the physiognomy of the people. Ella and Percy Sykes, Through Deserts and Oases of Central Asia.

[120] See Roger Pocock, Horses, a very interesting and picturesque little book.

[121] The History of Mankind, book v., C.

[122] Ibid.

[123] E. B.

[124] In Helmolt’s History of the World.

[125] Gibbon.

[126] […?]

[127] Josephus.

[128] Matt. xii. 46–50.

[129] Mark. x. 17–25.

[130] Mark. vii, 1–9.

[131] Mark. xii. 13–17.

[132] Mark x. 35–45.

[133] Hirth, The Ancient History of China, Chap. viii.

[134] "St. Paul understood what most Christians never realize, namely, that the Gospel of Christ is not a religion, but religion itself in its most universal and deepest significance, Dean Inge in Outspoken Essays.

[135] Paul’s Greek is very good. He is affected by the philosophical jargon of the Hellenistic schools and by that of Stoicism. But his mastery of sublime language is amazing.—G. M.

[136] In any prayer book of the Episcopalian Church. The Athanasian Creed embodies the view of Athanasius, but probably was not composed by him.

[137] Gibbon, The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, chap xvi.

[138] Encyclopaedia Britannica, art. “Church History,” p. 336.

[139] Great importance is attached to this task by historians, including one of the editors of this history. We are told that the essential contribution of Rome to the inheritance of mankind is the idea of society founded on law and that this exploit of Justinian was the crown of the gift. The writer is ill-equipped to estimate the peculiar value of Roman legalism to mankind. Existing law seems to him to be based upon a confused foundation of conventions arbitrary assumptions, and working fictions about human relationship, and to be a very impracticable and antiquated system indeed; he is persuaded that a time will come when the whole theory and practice of law will be recast in the light of a well-developed science of social psychology in accordance with a scientific conception of human society as one developing organization and in definite relationship to a system of moral and intellectual education. He contemplates the laws and lawyers of today with a temperamental lack of appreciation. This may have made him negligent of Justinian and unjust to Rome as a whole.

[140] The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, chap. xxiii.

[141] Turanians from Turkestan or Avars from the Caucasus.

[142] There were girl slaves who did domestic work and women who were bought and sold.—J. J. L. D.

[143] It is doubtful if the Chinese knew of the mariner’s compass. Hirth, Ancient History of China, p. 126 sqq., comes to the conclusion, after a careful examination of all data, although it is probable something like the compass was known in high antiquity, the knowledge of it was lost for a long time afterwards, until the Middle Ages, re reappears as an instrument in the hands of geomancers (people who selected favourable sites for graves, etc.). The earliest unmistakable mention of its use as a guide to mariners occurs in a work of the 12th century and refers to its use on foreign ships trading between China and Sumatra. Hirth is rather inclined to assume that Arab travellers may have seen it in the hands of Chinese Geomancers and applied its use to navigation, so that it was afterwards brought back by them to China as the “mariner’s compass.”—J. J. L. D.

[144] But Mr. Vogan tells me that rock carvings of a distinctively Chinese character have been found in New Zealand and New Caledonia.

[145] Mark Sykes

[146] Published by the Islamic Review

[147] But Schurtz, in Helmholt’s History of the World, says that the private life of the gallant Khalid was a scandal to the faithful. He committed adultery, a serious offense in a world of polygamy.

[148] At Ctesiphon

[149] Paraphrased from Schurtz in Helmholt’s History of the World.

[150] Mark Sykes

[151] St. John’s Gospel, chap i. 1.

[152] The Caliph’s Last Heritage.

[153] A General History of Europe.

[154] Alcohol as "spirits of wine was known to Pliny (79 A.D.). The student of the history of science should consult Campbell Brown’s History of Chemistry and check these statements in the text.

[155] Encyclopaedia Britannica, article “Feudalism,” by Professor G. B. Adams.

[156] The Franks differed from the Swabians and South Germans, and came much nearer the Anglo-Saxons in that they spoke a “Low German” and not a “High German” dialect. Their language resembled plattdeutsch and Anglo-Saxon, and was the direct parent of Dutch and Flemish. In fact, the Franks where they were not Latinized became Flemings and “Dutchmen” of South Holland (North Holland is still Friesisch-i.e. Anglo-Saxon). The “French” which the Latinized Franks and Burgundians spoke in the seventh to the tenth centuries was remarkably like the Romansch language of Switzerland, judging from the vestiges that remain in old documents.—H. H. J.

[157] A General History of Europe, Thatcher and Schwill.

[158] N.B.—Vik-ings, not Vi-kings, Vik = a fiord or inlet.

[159] The Lateran was the earlier palace of the Popes in Rome. Later they occupied the Vatican.

[160] Eginhard’s Life of Karl the Great. (Glaister.)

[161] The addition was discreetly opposed by Leo III “In the correspondence between them the Pope assumes the liberality of a statesman and the prince descends to the prejudice and passions of a priest.”—Gibbon, chap. ix.

[162] Gibbon mentions a second Theodora, the sister of Marozia.

[163] The period is a tangled one. The authority is Gregorovius, History of the City of Rome in the Middle Ages. John X owed the tiara to his mistress, the elder Theodora, but he was “the foremost statesman of his age.” He fell in 928 owing to Marozia. John XI became Pope in 931 (after two Popes had intervened in the period 928–931); he was Marozia’s son, possibly by Pope Sergius III. John XII did not come at once after John XI, who died in 936; there were several Popes in between; and he became Pope in 955.—E. B.

[164] There were three dynasties of emperors in the early middle ages: (1) Saxon: Otto I (962) to Henry II, ending 1024; (2) Salian: Conrad II to Henry V, ending about 1125; (3) Hohenstaufen: Conrad III to Frederic II, ending 1250. ¶ The Hohenstaufens were Swabian in origin. Then came the Hapsburgs with Rudolph I in 1273, who lasted until 1918.

[165] These dates are from Gibbon. Beazley gives 865, 904 – 7, 935, 944, 971 – 2. (History of Russia, Clarendon Press.)

[166] “A Turkish people whose leaders had adopted Judaism,” says Harold Williams.

[167] E. Barker, art. “Crusades,” Encyclopaedia Britannica.

[168] "The custody of the True Cross which on Easter Sunday was solemnly exposed to the people, was entrusted to the Bishop of Jerusalem; and he alone might gratify the curious devotion of the pilgrims, by the gift of small pieces, which they encased in gold or gems, and carried away in triumph to their respective countries. But, as this gainful branch of commerce must soon have been annihilated, it was found convenient to suppose, that the marvellous wood possessed a secret power of vegetation, and that its substance, though continually diminished, still remained entire and unimpaired."—Gibbon.

[169] The Popes inhabited the palace of the Lateran until 1305, when a French Pope set up the papal court at Avignon. When the Pope returned to Rome in 1377 the Lateran was almost in ruins, and the palace of the Vatican became the seat of the papal court. It was, among other advantages, much nearer to the papal stronghold, the Castle of St. Angelo.

[170] He was crowned emperor in 1220 by Honorius III, the successor of Innocent.

[171] Some authorities deny this authorship of this letter.

[172] Perhaps parchment rather than leather. Such promises on parchment were also used by the Carthaginians. Was Frederick’s money an Inheritance from an old tradition living on in Sicily since Carthaginian times?—E. B.

[173] Encyclopaedia Britannica, art, “Dominic.”

[174] J. H. Robinson.

[175] Sir Mark Sykes, The Caliphs’ Last Heritage.

[176] “Mogul” is our rendering of the Arabic spelling Mughal, which itself was a corruption of Mongol, the Arabic alphabet having no symbol for ng.—H. H. J.

[177] Dr. Schmit in Helmholt’s History of the World.

[178] Renascence here means rebirth, and it is applied to the recovery of the entire Western world. It is not to be confused with the “Renaissance,” an educational, literary, and artistic revival that went on in Italy and the Western world affected by Italy during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. The Renaissance was only a part of the Renascence of Europe. The Renaissance was a revival due to the exhumation of classical art and learning; it was but one factor in the very much larger and more complicated resurrection of European capacity and vigour, with which we are dealing in this chapter.

[179] But the Jews were already holding their community together by systematic education at least as early as the beginning of the Christian era.

[180] Lützow’s Bohemia

[181] Dr. C. O. Stallybrass says that this plague reached China thirty or forty years after its first appearance in Europe. Ibn Batuta, the Arab traveller who was in China from 1342 to 1346, first met with it on his return to Damascus. The Black Death is the human form of a disease endemic among jerbons and other small rodents in the districts round the head of the Caspian Sea.

[182] The seeds of conflict which grew up into the Peasants’ Revolt of 1381 were sown upon ground which is strangely familiar to any writer in 1920. A European catastrophe had reduced production and consequently increased the earnings of workers and traders. Rural wages had risen by 48 percent in England, when an unwise executive endeavoured to enforce in the Ordinance and Statute of Labourers (1350–51) a return to the pre-plague wages and prices of 1346, and aimed a blow in the Statute of 1378 against labour combinations. The villeins were driven to desperation by the loss of their recent increase of comfort, and the outbreak came, as Froissart saw it from the angle of the Court, “all through the too great comfort of the commonalty.” Other ingredients which entered into the outbreak were the resentment felt by the new working class at the restrictions imposed on its right to combine, the objection of the lower clergy to papal taxes, and a frank dislike of foreigners and landlords. There was no touch of Wycliffe’s influence in the rising. It was at its feeblest in Leicestershire, and it murdered one of the only other Liberal churchmen in England.—P. G.

[183] But nonconformity was stamped out in Germany. See par. 11B of this chapter.

[184] Encyclopaedia Britannica, article “Scholasticism.”

[185] The Medieval Mind, by Henry Osborne Taylor.

[186] Cp. Chap II, par. 1, towards the end.

[187] See Gregory’s Discovery, chap. vi.

[188] From Dr. Tille in Helmolt’s History of the World.

[189] Charles Dickens in his American Notes mentions swine in Broadway, New York, in the middle nineteenth century.

[190] In these maritime adventures in the eastern Atlantic and the west African coast the Portuguese were preceded in the thirteenth, fourteenth, and early fifteenth centuries by Normans, Catalonians, and Genoese.

[191] But he had a better reason for doing this in the fact that there was no heir to the throne. The Wars of the Roses, a bitter dynastic war, were still very vivid in the minds of English people.—F. I. L. H.

[192] Prescott’s Appendix to Robertson’s History of Charles V.

[193] Prescott.

[194] Rise of the Dutch Republic

[195] This is not the same Simon de Montfort as the leader of the crusades against Albigenses, but his son.

[196] Catherine the Great of Russia.

[197] Louis XVI of France and Charles III of Spain.

[198] Gibbon forgets here that cannon and the fundamentals of modern military method came to Europe with the Mongols.

[199] “Our present public school system is candidly based on training a dominant master class. But the uprising of the workers and modern conditions are rapidly making the dominant method unworkable, The change in the aim of schools will transform all the organizations and methods of schools, and my belief is that this change will make the new era”—F. W. Sanderson, Head Master of Oundle, in an address at Leeds, February 16th, 1920.

[200] John Smith’s Travels.

[201] The Tripoli Treaty, see Channing, vol iii, chap xviii.

[202] Wells, The Future in America.

[203] In 1776 Lord Dartmouth wrote that the colonists could not be allowed “to check or discourage a traffic so beneficent to the nation.”

[204] Article “France”. Encyclopaedia Britannica.

[205] In his article, “French Revolutionary Wars,” Encyclopaedia Britannica.

[206] In the thirteen months before June, 1794, there were 1,229 executions; in the following seven weeks there were 1,376.—P.G.

[207] Channing, vol iii. chap. xviii.

[208] Gourgand quoted by Holland Rose.

[209] But note Boyle and Sir Wm. Hamilton as conspicuous scientific men who were Irishmen.

[210] It is worth noting that nearly all the great inventors in England during the eighteenth century were working men, that inventions proceeded from the workshop, and not from the laboratory. It is also worth noting that only two of these inventors accumulated fortunes and founded families.—E. B.

[211] Here America led the old world.

[212] In Northumberland and Durham in the early days of coal mining they were so cheaply esteemed that it was unusual to hold inquests on the bodies of men killed in mine disasters.

[213] It is sometimes argued against Marx that the proportion of people who have savings invested has increased in many modern communities. These savings are technically “capital” and their owners “capitalists” to that extent, and this is supposed to contradict the statement of Marx that property concentrates into few and fewer hands. Marx used many of his terms carelessly and chose them ill, and his ideas were better than his words. When he wrote property he meant “property so far as it is power.” The small investor has remarkably little power over his invested capital.

[214] Wells, Russia in the Shadows.

[215] For a closely parallel view of religion to that given here, see Outspoken Essays, by Dean Inge,. Essays VIII and IX on St. Paul and on Institutionalism and Mysticism.

[216] Albert Thomas in the Encyclopaedia Britannica

[217] Hence “Jingo” for any rabid patriot.

[218] See Putnam Weale’s Indiscreet Letters from Pekin , a partly fictitious book, but true and vivid in its effects.

[219] A new and much more liberal Maltese constitution was promulgated in June, 1920, practically putting Malta on the footing of a self-governing colony.

[220] These quotations are from Sir Thomas Barclay’s article “Peace” in the Encyclopaedia Britannica

[221] “Is” and not “are.” Since the Civil War the U. S. A. is one nation. A. C.

[222] The Times, December 8th, 1915.

[223] Authorities vary between 250,000 and a million houses.

[224] In his book, The Peace Conference.

[225] Dillon.

[226] Dillon. And see his The Peace Conference, chapter iii, for instances of the amazing ignorance of the various delegates.

[227] Checked by subsequent comparison with the published article in the Jour. of the Roy United Service Institution, vol. lxv, No 457, February,

[228] Cp. Psalm cxxxvi.

[229] Here is another glimpse of the agreeable dreams that fill the contemporary military mind. It is from Fuller’s recently published Tanks in the Great War. Colonel Fuller does not share that hostility to tanks characteristic of the older type of soldier. In the next war , he tells us; "Fast-moving tanks, equipped with tons of liquid gas … will cross the frontier and obliterate every living thing in the fields and farms, the villages, and cities of the enemy’s country. Whilst life is being swept away around the frontier, fleets of aeroplanes will attack the enemy’s great industrial and governing centres. All these attacks will be made at first, not against the enemy’s great army … but against the civil population, in order to compel it to accept the will of the attacker. ¶ For a good, well-balanced account of what modern war really means, see Phillip Gibbs, Realities of War.

[230] […?]